Thursday, August 27, 2015

Ontology




















A Facebook friend of mine working on her PhD, posted on my Facebook main page and mentioned, ontology.

I was indicated to perhaps be donnish, but when I simply skimmed the post on my mobile phone quickly at work, I originally read it as dorkish.

Another reason for re-reads...

Ontology is from the Greek word for being, and is a 17th century term for the branch of metaphysics that is concerned with what exists. Blackburn (1996: 269).

The ontological argument is an a priori (non-empirical knowledge or speculation, my add) has been used by those such as Anselm and is noted as purely a priori as an attempt to prove the existence of God. Blackburn (1996: 269). Blackburn writes that Aquinas did not accept the argument. Blackburn (1996: 269).

Blackburn mentions Plantinga as a modern philosopher that has stated a version of the ontological argument. Blackburn (1996: 269).

The view of Anselm is that God is something of which nothing greater can be conceived. Blackburn (1996: 269).

Plantinga uses the concept of possible worlds and that it is at least possible that a maximally great being exists in every possible world, if it exists in one possible world, it exists in all possible worlds. So, the maximally great being exists in every possible world. Blackburn (1996: 269). Plantinga (1977)(2002: 111-112).

It is an impossible proposition of the maximally great being in one possible world and every possible world, to not exist, therefore the being exists in the actual world. Plantinga (1977)(2002: 111-112).

Plantinga presents a version he reasons is valid and sound and he states that the argument does not prove the existence of God. His version, proves not the truth of theism, but that fact that the argument is rational; or its 'rational acceptability' as an argument.  Plantinga (1977)(2002: 112).

This does read as reasonable and sound and true.

I have never used an ontological argument and likely never will.

The critic can state that he/she, because much of the argument rests on what a human being can reason in conception, can conceive of a being as great as the maximally great being.

So, two maximally great beings. Perhaps one good and one evil? Dualism? I have come across that argument more than once.

Even when countered with the concept, that I use, that there cannot be two infinite (limitless) beings as they would be one infinite (limitless) being, many ontological arguments and counter arguments would focus too much on what the person and critic can subjectively 'reason' and 'conceive'. The reasoning and conception not necessarily being philosophically and theologically reasonable or for that matter sound and true.

Dualism being ruled out as contradictory as I reason the one infinite being that was both infinitely good and infinitely evil would be contradictory.

Or, good and evil are one in the same, i.e. there is no such thing as evil. One infinite being would be viewed as good.

Instead arguments for first cause, although still using human reasoning of course, rely less on human reasoning in the sense of what a person subjectively conceives.

It relies more so on objective reason.

A vicious regress occurs when a problem cannot solve itself, this not being the case with infinite numbers, with negative numbers, as infinite regress, as they are not real things but can count real things that do actually exist. An infinite regress is not always vicious.

A vicious regress occurs if time is eternal and infinite as in how would we arrive from the eternal, infinite past to the present? It would be impossible to traverse from the infinite past to the present.

Therefore, there exists an eternal, infinite first cause prior to time that created time.

This also could be stated in regard to matter and the universe which many scientists reason began with a big bang theory.

What immaterial being existed prior to the big bang?

It is deduced as a non-material, eternal, infinite first cause.

BLACKBURN, SIMON (1996) Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

PLANTINGA, ALVIN C. (1977)(2002) God, Freedom, and Evil, Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

PLANTINGA, ALVIN C. (1982) The Nature of Necessity, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

PLANTINGA, ALVIN C. (2000) Warranted Christian Belief, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Cornelius Van Til (Brief PhD Edit)

The Village Church @ Bill Reid Millennium Amphitheatre Park, Surrey, August 23

Apparently a church camera drone (left), although I satirically thought, as did Dean, that it could be the city spying to make sure the Pastor did not pray as instructed; although he was allowed to freely preach. Why the difference? Perhaps the city is more afraid of a growing Islamic presence and prayers on street corners etcetera than Islamic groups or other religious groups meeting and worshipping in public, which would tend to be more isolated and private in nature. Regardless if there is significant truth to my speculative deduction or not, I do not agree with the civil ruling. If there are concerns with such a group it should be dealt with on a federal immigration level, more so.
I fully admit there is limited to work with as I am not 'Fabio' or like, but here is a demonstration of how photo editing can significantly hide. The brighter left side of my forehead on the photo upper left or my upper right was sunburned at the outdoor church event as the sun was on my right. It was misconstrued by some @ work as a 'rash', so visible after a few seconds of observation.  I played with lighting on this photo as I do with almost all of them, that is all.  This reminds me of a pastor I listen to online that states that Facebook is fake and the photos presented make one look better than they actually do. Well, my photos do not include cut and paste, as implied.













The Vancouver Sun January 31, 2015

Cited

'The Muslim populations of Canada and Metro Vancouver are expected to triple by 2031, according to both Statistics Canada and last week's major Pew Forum report, titled The Future of the Global Muslim Population.'

Note, Surrey is the second most populated city is Metro Vancouver, after Vancouver.

Cited

'But even though the number of Metro Vancouver Muslims is expected to rise to 230,000 in two decades (to six per cent of the population), the city's Islamic community will likely continue to be a highly diverse collection of people hailing from scores of nations.'

---

Cornelius Van Til (Brief PhD Edit)

Revelation

Cornelius Van Til explains that Reformed theology presupposes the God that reveals himself. Van Til (1969: 18).

Kant was opposed to speculative views of indefensible rationalism. Blackburn (1996: 206). Cornelius Van Til suggests Kant reasons God is not a law giver to humanity, God cannot reveal himself through nature or human constitution with the image of God. The intellect of human beings makes no positive assertions concerning God. Kant rejects notions of theoretical knowledge of God and, instead, appeals to practical reason and faith. Van Til (1977: 246-247). Plantinga writes that it is suggested by many commentators Kant demonstrated there are insurmountable problems with the idea that the traditional Christian God exists. Plantinga (2000: 7).

Van Til writes that the Reformers reasoned they were listening to Christ directly through the Scriptures as God revealed himself to humanity. Van Til (1977: 246).

BLACKBURN, SIMON (1996)  Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy,  Oxford, Oxford University Press.

KANT, IMMANUEL (1781)(1787)(1998) Critique of Pure Reason, Translated and edited by Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

KANT, IMMANUEL (1781)(1787)(1929)(2006) Critique of Pure Reason, Translated by Norman Kemp Smith, London, Macmillan. http://www.hkbu.edu.hk/~ppp/cpr/toc.html.

KANT, IMMANUEL (1788)(1997) Critique of Practical Reason, Translated by Mary Gregor (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

KANT, IMMANUEL (1788)(1898)(2006) The Critique of Practical Reason, Translated by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, London, Longmans, Green, and Co. http://philosophy.eserver.org/kant/critique-of-practical-reaso.txt

KANT, IMMANUEL (1791)(2001) ‘On The Miscarriage of All Philosophical Trials in Theodicy’, in Religion and Rational Theology, Translated by George di Giovanni and Allen Wood, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

PLANTINGA, ALVIN C. (1977)(2002) God, Freedom, and Evil, Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

PLANTINGA, ALVIN C. (1982) The Nature of Necessity, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

PLANTINGA, ALVIN C. (2000) Warranted Christian Belief, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

VAN TIL, CORNELIUS (1969) A Christian Theory of Knowledge, Nutley, New Jersey, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company.

VAN TIL, CORNELIUS (1977) Christianity and Barthianism, Nutley, New Jersey, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company.

Find the drone...